Our Research

Our research group, led by Dr Gabriel Reedy from King’s College London, is characterised by two interconnected themes. The first is focused on understanding more about how simulation contributes to how clinical professionals learn. The second theme uses simulation as research tool – a window on our healthcare system – to identify problems, develop care interventions, and evaluate those interventions, with the overall goal of improving the quality of care.

Research on Simulation as an Educational Intervention
  • Developing and explaining how the theoretical underpinnings of simulation can be used to inform simulation practice.
  • Developing and extending the ways and means of evaluating simulation interventions and programmes in various specific settings, with an aim of developing, synthesising, and validating a framework for quality control and evaluation of simulation courses and programmes.
  • Further exploration of the possibilities for developing, validating, and using theoretically-grounded instruments for measuring and testing the effectiveness of simulation-based educational interventions.
  • The development of theory and practice around faculty development and the development of expertise in simulation education.
  • Further exploration of the role of debriefing in the learning process and an understanding of how different types of debrief are appropriate for different simulation approaches and different learners.


Simulation as a Research Tool to Improve the Quality of Care
  • Team processes such as leadership, communication, shared information and task distribution and how hierarchies and the distribution of power are related to team processes and performance.
  • Identifying markers of skilled performance in particular clinical skills or areas and how they contribute to successful clinical outcomes.
  • How interaction with different devices and technologies can identify problems and difficulties that may be related to device design, individual knowledge or skills or team interactions.
  • How the layout of the physical workspace may have an effect on team performance and interaction.
  • Developing a framework of markers of resilient individual or team performance, building on the theoretical work being done in our allied research group, the Centre for Applied Resilience in Healthcare (CARe), to understand resilience in the clinical setting.
  • Testing new interventions designed to improve the quality of care and identify problems before they are introduced into the clinical workplace.
Publications from the SaIL Research Team

The Simulation team is best known for their model of simulation debriefing known as the Simulation and Interactive Learning (SaIL) Debrief Diamond. The materials are available for other teams to use, with attribution, and can be downloaded here.

The citation for referencing the SaIL Debrief Diamond is:

Jaye, P., Thomas, L. and Reedy, G. (2015), ‘The Diamond’: a structure for simulation debrief. The Clinical Teacher, 12: 171–175. (doi: 10.1111/tct.12300)

Selected Further Publications from the SaIL Research Team

Reedy, G. B. (2015). Using Cognitive Load Theory to Inform Simulation Design and Practice. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 11, 8, p. 355-360. (doi: 10.1016/j.ecns.2015.05.004)

Watters, C., Reedy, G., Ross, A., Morgan, N. J., Handslip, R., and Jaye, P. (2015) Does interprofessional simulation increase self-efficacy: a comparative study. BMJ Open, 5(1), e005472. (doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005472)

Braude P, Reedy G, Dasgupta D, et al. (2015).  Evaluation of a simulation training programme for geriatric medicine. Age and Ageing. 2015 Jul;44(4):677-82. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afv049. Epub 2015 May 6

Ross, A.J., Anderson, J.E., Kodate, N., Thompson, K., Cox, A., and Malik, R. (2014) Inpatient diabetes care: complexity, resilience and quality of care. Cognition, Technology and Work, 16(1), pp. 91-102. (doi:10.1007/s10111-012-0247-2)

Mehdi, Z., Roots, A., Ernst, T., Birns, J., Ross, A., Reedy, G., and Jaye, P. (2014) Simulation training for geriatric medicine. Clinical Teacher, 11(5), pp. 387-392. (doi:10.1111/tct.12156)

Eldred-Evans, D., Grange, P., Cheang, A., Yamamoto, H., Ayis, S., Mulla, M., Immenroth, M., Sharma, D. & Reedy, G. (2013). Using the Mind as a Simulator: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mental Training. Journal of Surgical Education. 70, 4, p. 544-551 (doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2013.04.003)

Ross, A.J., Anderson, J.E., Kodate, N., Thomas, L., Thompson, K., Thomas, B., Key, S., Jensen, H., Schiff, R., and Jaye, P. (2013) Simulation training for improving the quality of care for older people: an independent evaluation of an innovative programme for inter-professional education. BMJ Quality and Safety, 22(6), pp. 495-505. (doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2012-000954)

Ross, A.J., Kodate, N., Anderson, J.E., Thomas, L., and Jaye, P. (2012) Review of simulation studies in anaesthesia journals, 2001-2010: mapping and content analysis. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 109(1), pp. 99-109. (doi:10.1093/bja/aes184)

Kodate, N., Ross, A., Anderson, J., and Flin, R. (2012) Non-technical skills (NTS) for enhancing patient safety. Japanese Journal of Quality and Safety in Health Care, 7(4), pp. 360-370.

Birns, J., Roots, A., Ernst, T., and Jaye, P. (2012). Simulation training for geriatric medicine.  British Geriatrics Society Newsletter 2012; 37: 18-19.

International Conference Presentations

The Simulation team regularly presents our research and innovative simulation practice at national and international meetings in education and simulation. Since 2011 we have presented work annually at the following conferences:

We also have presented work at many other national and international conferences.